MPGU was established in 1872, and one year later a library was opened that consisted of the books that were brought by the first female students. Teachers and students alike had active role in purchase and choice of necessary scientific literature and periodicals. Sometimes private book collections were purchased or donated to the University. Famous matematicians, biologists and philologists gave their collections to the University as a gift. The library fund has been enlarged by study guides and text books written by MPGU professors.
Rare book department was established in 1993 for mainly to systematizу the fund. The core of the fund are the aforementioned collections as well as rare books acquired by the University.